How Are Cyclones Named?

Phailin, Hudhud, Titli and now Phethai are among the names of cyclones we have heard of. But ever wondered how these Tropical Cyclones are named? Here is an explainer.

There is every chance that you must have heard of the tropical cyclones in the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal & the Indian Ocean that are identified by a specific name. This naming has a history & a process. Here is an explainer.

Why name cyclones in the first place? 
According to the India Meteorological Department or the Met department (IMD), ‘practice of naming tropical cyclones began years ago in order to help in the quick identification of storms in warning messages because names are presumed to be far easier to remember than the numbers and technical terms. Many agree that adding names to storms makes it easier for the media to report on tropical cyclones, heightens interest in warnings and increases community preparedness.’

Further, it is globally accepted that naming cyclones will help in the following ways.

  • It would help identify each individual tropical cyclone.
  • It helps the public to become fully aware of its development.
  • Local and international media become focused to the tropical cyclone.
  • It does not confuse the public when there is more than one tropical cyclone in the same area.
  • The name of the tropical cyclone is well remembered by millions of people as it is an unforgettable event whose name will long be remembered.
  • Warnings reach a much wider audience very rapidly.

The tropical cyclones are named neither after any particular person, nor with any preference in alphabetical sequence. The names selected are those that are familiar to the people in each region.

What are the bodies responsible for coming with a list of names?
There is a strict procedure in place to determine a list of tropical cyclone names in any ocean basin. The Tropical Cyclone regional body responsible for that basin determines these names at its annual/biennial meeting. The following are the five tropical cyclones regional  bodies.

  • ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee
  • WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones
  • RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee
  • RA IV Hurricane Committee
  • RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee

In addition, the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMC) are responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, warnings, monitoring and prediction of tropical cyclones over their respective regions. They are also responsible to name the cyclones.

In general, tropical cyclones are named according to the rules at a regional level.  For instance, the National Hurricane Committee determines a pre-designated list of Hurricane names for the storms in the Atlantic Ocean. Here, six lists are used in rotation. Thus, the 2018 list will be used again in 2024 and so on.

Even for the  Eastern North Pacific Ocean, the lists are re-cycled every six years. The details of the names of the tropical cyclones over different Ocean basins can be seen on the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) website.

What about names of Cyclones in India & the neighbourhood?
The Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) of Tropical Cyclones in  New Delhi  is assigned the responsibility of issuing weather outlooks and tropical cyclone advisories for the countries in the WMO/ESCAP Panel region bordering the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. This is also the agency responsible for naming the cyclones in this region.

The WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones at its twenty-seventh Session held in  the year 2000 in Muscat (Oman) agreed in principle to assign names to the tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

After long deliberations among the member countries, the naming of the tropical cyclones over north Indian Ocean commenced from September 2004.  The eight panel members are India, Bangladesh, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka & Thailand.

The RSMC (New Delhi) gives each tropical cyclone an identification name from the below name list. The identification system covers both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
The following have to be noted while understanding the naming in this region.

  • The Panel member’s name are listed alphabetically country wise.
  • The name will be used sequentially column wise. (List 1 followed by List 2 and so on)
  • The first name will start from the first row of column one and continue sequentially to the last row in column eight. Example, this will be as Onil, Agni, Hibaru, Pyar, Baaz …………. Amphan.

The lists for the Indian region are used sequentially and are not rotated every few years like the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific lists.

For instance, Titli which is listed in the 6th row of List 7 was used for a severe cyclone in the Andaman sea in October 2018. The next name Gaja was used for a severe cyclone near Thailand in November 2018. The recent severe cyclone over the Bay of Bengal is hence named ‘Phethai’. Phethai is the last entry in List 7. Hence the next cyclone in this region will be named ‘Fani’, the first entry of List 8. Once the lists are exhausted, the panel meets again, to decide on a list of names.

If there is a severe  storm that causes a lot of  damage/destruction & causes many deaths, then its name is considered for retirement and is not used repeatedly. This is to ensure that the history and record of that cyclone is identified with a unique name.

This is an extract from “Explainer: How are Cyclones Named?” by Sai Santosh Vangala at FACTLY which is licensed under CC BY 4.0.
The images in the extract from the article have been removed. The image on this page, just above the extract from the article, is not from either the extract or the rest of the article.

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